Russian archeological expedition in Ecuador
The authors of this paper has brought together one of the most interesting and unsolved problems of archaeology of pre-Columbian America – the determination of the time and place of the appearance of pottery in the South American continent. According to the bold hypothesis, pottery first appeared on the coast of Ecuador in the early agricultural culture of Valdivia about 5 thousand years ago, and this event was associated with transoceanic sailing media culture of the Jomon Japanese archipelago. Most archaeologists believe that the origins of valdivielso pottery should be sought in the continent
Search of early cultures on the coast of Ecuador are associated with the name of the Amateur archeologist and businessman E. Estrada Icaza and a couple of American archaeologists meggers B., and K. Evans of the Smithsonian Institute. A momentous event happened in 1956 when archaeological expedition discovered in the small fishing village of Valdivia multilayer archaeological monument of the unknown pottery. The age of the Valdivia culture, defined by radiocarbon Dating, was 4.5—4.0 thousand that gave reason to believe that we are talking about the oldest pottery not only in Ecuador but throughout South America. Based on the characteristic features Valdivieso ceramics,Estrada was nominated unexpected version that caused a lot of fierce dispute: origins unknown Ecuadorian culture – the Japanese archipelago, the Jomon culture!
The intrigue surrounding the origins of pottery in South America has exacerbated new archaeological discoveries made in the coastal areas of Ecuador in the 1970s-1980s including in the southern part of the Peninsula Santa Elena in 1971 was opened the monument of culture of Valdivia, real Alto. In the mid-1970s – early 1980s, U.S.-Ecuadorian expedition, laying here three trenches, found numerous traces of dwellings, earthen platforms, ritual platforms and burials with a rich equipment. On the basis of these works was determined by the chronology of Valdivia culture (5,5—3,5 thousand years ago) and proposed a detailed classification discovered there ceramic ware. In 1988, at real Alto was officially opened Museum complex under the auspices of the largest in Ecuador Primorsky Polytechnic University (ESPOL, Guayaquil).
Despite all these achievements, the situation with the study of the Valdivia culture in General remains quite paradoxical. For all the years and failed to answer a number of questions, including a fundamental nature. First, where has its origins in the early agricultural culture? After all, between her.
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